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    Text Of U.S. Supreme Court's Two Major Affirmative Action Decisions

    (June 24, 2003) -- posts below in pdf form the verbatim text of the U.S. Supreme Court's two major affirmative action decisions.

    The two cases -- particularly Grutter v. Bollinger calling promotion of racial diversity a compelling state interest -- will have long-term impacts far beyond their University of Michigan facts. They will affect the use of race by American government institutions (and inevitably business institutions, although not directly bound by the two Court rulings).

    In that sense, they will profoundly affect the way America views itself.

    • Grutter v. Bollinger: Court held (5-4) that the use of racial preferences to achieve "diversity" in law school admissions was tailored to achieve a compelling state interest and didn't violate U.S. Constitution's (14th amendment) "equal protection" clause. (987 kB)

    • Gratz v. Bollinger: Court struck down (6-3) a numerical racial preference system in undergraduate admissions. (907 kb)

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