President Outlines Steps to Help Iraq Achieve Democracy and Freedom
Remarks by the President on Iraq and the War on Terror
United States Army War College, Carlisle, Pennsylvania
[5:00 P.M. PDT]
THE PRESIDENT: Thank you all. Thank you and good evening. I'm
honored to visit the Army War College. Generations of officers have
come here to study the strategies and history of warfare. I've come
here tonight to report to all Americans, and to the Iraqi people, on
the strategy our nation is pursuing in Iraq, and the specific steps
were taking to achieve our goals.
The actions of our enemies over the last few weeks have been
brutal, calculating, and instructive. We've seen a car bombing take
the life of a 61-year-old Iraqi named Izzedin Saleem, who was serving
as President of the Governing Council. This crime shows our enemy's
intention to prevent Iraqi self-government, even if that means killing
a lifelong Iraqi patriot and a faithful Muslim. Mr. Saleem was
assassinated by terrorists seeking the return of tyranny and the death
We've also seen images of a young American facing decapitation.
This vile display shows a contempt for all the rules of warfare, and
all the bounds of civilized behavior. It reveals a fanaticism that was
not caused by any action of ours, and would not be appeased by any
concession. We suspect that the man with the knife was an al Qaeda
associate named Zarqawi. He and other terrorists know that Iraq is now
the central front in the war on terror. And we must understand that,
as well. The return of tyranny to Iraq would be an unprecedented
terrorist victory, and a cause for killers to rejoice. It would also
embolden the terrorists, leading to more bombings, more beheadings, and
more murders of the innocent around the world.
The rise of a free and self-governing Iraq will deny terrorists a
base of operation, discredit their narrow ideology, and give momentum
to reformers across the region. This will be a decisive blow to
terrorism at the heart of its power, and a victory for the security of
America and the civilized world.
Our work in Iraq has been hard. Our coalition has faced changing
conditions of war, and that has required perseverance, sacrifice, and
an ability to adapt. The swift removal of Saddam Hussein's regime last
spring had an unintended effect: Instead of being killed or captured
on the battlefield, some of Saddam's elite guards shed their uniforms
and melted into the civilian population. These elements of Saddam's
repressive regime and secret police have reorganized, rearmed, and
adopted sophisticated terrorist tactics. They've linked up with
foreign fighters and terrorists. In a few cities, extremists have
tried to sow chaos and seize regional power for themselves. These
groups and individuals have conflicting ambitions, but they share a
goal: They hope to wear out the patience of Americans, our coalition,
and Iraqis before the arrival of effective self-government, and before
Iraqis have the capability to defend their freedom.
Iraq now faces a critical moment. As the Iraqi people move closer
to governing themselves, the terrorists are likely to become more
active and more brutal. There are difficult days ahead, and the way
forward may sometimes appear chaotic. Yet our coalition is strong, our
efforts are focused and unrelenting, and no power of the enemy will
stop Iraq's progress. (Applause.)
Helping construct a stable democracy after decades of dictatorship
is a massive undertaking. Yet we have a great advantage. Whenever
people are given a choice in the matter, they prefer lives of freedom
to lives of fear. Our enemies in Iraq are good at filling hospitals,
but they do not build any. They can incite men to murder and suicide,
but they cannot inspire men to live, and hope, and add to the progress
of their country. The terrorists' only influence is violence, and
their only agenda is death.
Our agenda, in contrast, is freedom and independence, security and
prosperity for the Iraqi people. And by removing a source of terrorist
violence and instability in the Middle East, we also make our own
country more secure.
Our coalition has a clear goal, understood by all -- to see the
Iraqi people in charge of Iraq for the first time in generations.
America's task in Iraq is not only to defeat an enemy, it is to give
strength to a friend - a free, representative government that serves
its people and fights on their behalf. And the sooner this goal is
achieved, the sooner our job will be done.
There are five steps in our plan to help Iraq achieve democracy and
freedom. We will hand over authority to a sovereign Iraqi government,
help establish security, continue rebuilding Iraq's infrastructure,
encourage more international support, and move toward a national
election that will bring forward new leaders empowered by the Iraqi
The first of these steps will occur next month, when our coalition
will transfer full sovereignty to a government of Iraqi citizens who
will prepare the way for national elections. On June 30th, the
Coalition Provisional Authority will cease to exist, and will not be
replaced. The occupation will end, and Iraqis will govern their own
affairs. America's ambassador to Iraq, John Negroponte, will present
his credentials to the new president of Iraq. Our embassy in Baghdad
will have the same purpose as any other American embassy, to assure
good relations with a sovereign nation. America and other countries
will continue to provide technical experts to help Iraq's ministries of
government, but these ministries will report to Iraq's new prime
The United Nations Special Envoy, Lakhdar Brahimi, is now
consulting with a broad spectrum of Iraqis to determine the composition
of this interim government. The special envoy intends to put forward
the names of interim government officials this week. In addition to a
president, two vice presidents, and a prime minister, 26 Iraqi
ministers will oversee government departments, from health to justice
to defense. This new government will be advised by a national council,
which will be chosen in July by Iraqis representing their country's
diversity. This interim government will exercise full sovereignty
until national elections are held. America fully supports Mr.
Brahimi's efforts, and I have instructed the Coalition Provisional
Authority to assist him in every way possible.
In preparation for sovereignty, many functions of government have
already been transferred. Twelve government ministries are currently
under the direct control of Iraqis. The Ministry of Education, for
example, is out of the propaganda business, and is now concerned with
educating Iraqi children. Under the direction of Dr. Ala'din al-Alwan,
the Ministry has trained more than 30,000 teachers and supervisors for
the schools of a new Iraq.
All along, some have questioned whether the Iraqi people are ready
for self-government, or even want it. And all along, the Iraqi people
have given their answer. In settings where Iraqis have met to discuss
their country's future, they have endorsed representative government.
And they are practicing representative government. Many of Iraq's
cities and towns now have elected town councils or city governments -
and beyond the violence, a civil society is emerging.
The June 30th transfer of sovereignty is an essential commitment of
our strategy. Iraqis are proud people who resent foreign control of
their affairs, just as we would. After decades under the tyrant, they
are also reluctant to trust authority. By keeping our promise on June
30th, the coalition will demonstrate that we have no interest in
occupation. And full sovereignty will give Iraqis a direct interest in
the success of their own government. Iraqis will know that when they
build a school or repair a bridge, they're not working for the
Coalition Provisional Authority, they are working for themselves. And
when they patrol the streets of Baghdad, or engage radical militias,
they will be fighting for their own country.
The second step in the plan for Iraqi democracy is to help
establish the stability and security that democracy requires.
Coalition forces and the Iraqi people have the same enemies -- the
terrorists, illegal militia, and Saddam loyalists who stand between the
Iraqi people and their future as a free nation. Working as allies, we
will defend Iraq and defeat these enemies.
America will provide forces and support necessary for achieving
these goals. Our commanders had estimated that a troop level below
115,000 would be sufficient at this point in the conflict. Given the
recent increase in violence, we'll maintain our troop level at the
current 138,000 as long as necessary. This has required extended duty
for the 1st Armored Division and the 2nd Light Cavalry Regiment --
20,000 men and women who were scheduled to leave Iraq in April. Our
nation appreciates their hard work and sacrifice, and they can know
that they will be heading home soon. General Abizaid and other
commanders in Iraq are constantly assessing the level of troops they
need to fulfill the mission. If they need more troops, I will send
them. The mission of our forces in Iraq is demanding and dangerous.
Our troops are showing exceptional skill and courage. I thank them for
their sacrifices and their duty. (Applause.)
In the city of Fallujah, there's been considerable violence by
Saddam loyalists and foreign fighters, including the murder of four
American contractors. American soldiers and Marines could have used
overwhelming force. Our commanders, however, consulted with Iraq's
Governing Council and local officials, and determined that massive
strikes against the enemy would alienate the local population, and
increase support for the insurgency. So we have pursued a different
approach. We're making security a shared responsibility in Fallujah.
Coalition commanders have worked with local leaders to create an
all-Iraqi security force, which is now patrolling the city. Our
soldiers and Marines will continue to disrupt enemy attacks on our
supply routes, conduct joint patrols with Iraqis to destroy bomb
factories and safe houses, and kill or capture any enemy.
We want Iraqi forces to gain experience and confidence in dealing
with their country's enemies. We want the Iraqi people to know that we
trust their growing capabilities, even as we help build them. At the
same time, Fallujah must cease to be a sanctuary for the enemy, and
those responsible for terrorism will be held to account.
In the cities of Najaf and Karbala and Kufa, most of the violence
has been incited by a young, radical cleric who commands an illegal
militia. These enemies have been hiding behind an innocent civilian
population, storing arms and ammunition in mosques, and launching
attacks from holy shrines. Our soldiers have treated religious sites
with respect, while systematically dismantling the illegal militia.
We're also seeing Iraqis, themselves, take more responsibility for
restoring order. In recent weeks, Iraqi forces have ejected elements
of this militia from the governor's office in Najaf. Yesterday, an
elite Iraqi unit cleared out a weapons cache from a large mosque in
Kufa. Respected Shia leaders have called on the militia to withdraw
from these towns. Ordinary Iraqis have marched in protest against the
As challenges arise in Fallujah, Najaf, and elsewhere, the tactics
of our military will be flexible. Commanders on the ground will pay
close attention to local conditions. And we will do all that is
necessary -- by measured force or overwhelming force -- to achieve a
Iraq's military, police, and border forces have begun to take on
broader responsibilities. Eventually, they must be the primary
defenders of Iraqi security, as American and coalition forces are
withdrawn. And we're helping them to prepare for this role. In some
cases, the early performance of Iraqi forces fell short. Some refused
orders to engage the enemy. We've learned from these failures, and
we've taken steps to correct them. Successful fighting units need a
sense of cohesion, so we've lengthened and intensified their training.
Successful units need to know they are fighting for the future of their
own country, not for any occupying power, so we are ensuring that Iraqi
forces serve under an Iraqi chain of command. Successful fighting
units need the best possible leadership, so we improved the vetting and
training of Iraqi officers and senior enlisted men.
At my direction, and with the support of Iraqi authorities, we are
accelerating our program to help train Iraqis to defend their country.
A new team of senior military officers is now assessing every unit in
Iraq's security forces. I've asked this team to oversee the training
of a force of 260,000 Iraqi soldiers, police, and other security
personnel. Five Iraqi army battalions are in the field now, with
another eight battalions to join them by July the 1st. The eventual
goal is an Iraqi army of 35,000 soldiers in 27 battalions, fully
prepared to defend their country.
After June 30th, American and other forces will still have
important duties. American military forces in Iraq will operate under
American command as a part of a multinational force authorized by the
United Nations. Iraq's new sovereign government will still face
enormous security challenges, and our forces will be there to help.
The third step in the plan for Iraqi democracy is to continue
rebuilding that nation's infrastructure, so that a free Iraq can
quickly gain economic independence and a better quality of life. Our
coalition has already helped Iraqis to rebuild schools and refurbish
hospitals and health clinics, repair bridges, upgrade the electrical
grid, and modernize the communications system. And now a growing
private economy is taking shape. A new currency has been introduced.
Iraq's Governing Council approved a new law that opens the country to
foreign investment for the first time in decades. Iraq has liberalized
its trade policy, and today an Iraqi observer attends meetings of the
World Trade Organization. Iraqi oil production has reached more than
two million barrels per day, bringing revenues of nearly $6 billion so
far this year, which is being used to help the people of Iraq. And
thanks in part to our efforts -- to the efforts of former Secretary of
State James Baker, many of Iraq's largest creditors have pledged to
forgive or substantially reduce Iraqi debt incurred by the former
We're making progress. Yet there still is much work to do. Over
the decades of Saddam's rule, Iraq's infrastructure was allowed to
crumble, while money was diverted to palaces, and to wars, and to
weapons programs. We're urging other nations to contribute to Iraqi
reconstruction -- and 37 countries and the IMF and the World Bank have
so far pledged $13.5 billion in aid. America has dedicated more than
$20 billion to reconstruction and development projects in Iraq. To
ensure our money is spent wisely and effectively, our new embassy in
Iraq will have regional offices in several key cities. These offices
will work closely with Iraqis at all levels of government to help make
sure projects are completed on time and on budget.
A new Iraq will also need a humane, well-supervised prison system.
Under the dictator, prisons like Abu Ghraib were symbols of death and
torture. That same prison became a symbol of disgraceful conduct by a
few American troops who dishonored our country and disregarded our
values. America will fund the construction of a modern, maximum
security prison. When that prison is completed, detainees at Abu
Ghraib will be relocated. Then, with the approval of the Iraqi
government, we will demolish the Abu Ghraib prison, as a fitting symbol
of Iraq's new beginning. (Applause.)
The fourth step in our plan is to enlist additional international
support for Iraq's transition. At every stage, the United States has
gone to the United Nations -- to confront Saddam Hussein, to promise
serious consequences for his actions, and to begin Iraqi
reconstruction. Today, the United States and Great Britain presented a
new resolution in the Security Council to help move Iraq toward
self-government. I've directed Secretary Powell to work with fellow
members of the Council to endorse the timetable the Iraqis have
adopted, to express international support for Iraq's interim
government, to reaffirm the world's security commitment to the Iraqi
people, and to encourage other U.N. members to join in the effort.
Despite past disagreements, most nations have indicated strong support
for the success of a free Iraq. And I'm confident they will share in
the responsibility of assuring that success.
Next month, at the NATO summit in Istanbul, I will thank our 15
NATO allies who together have more than 17,000 troops on the ground in
Iraq. Great Britain and Poland are each leading a multinational
division that is securing important parts of the country. And NATO,
itself, is giving helpful intelligence, communications, and logistical
support to the Polish-led division. At the summit, we will discuss
NATO's role in helping Iraq build and secure its democracy.
The fifth and most important step is free, national elections, to
be held no later than next January. A United Nations team, headed by
Carina Perelli, is now in Iraq, helping form an independent election
commission that will oversee an orderly, accurate national election.
In that election, the Iraqi people will choose a transitional national
assembly, the first freely-elected, truly representative national
governing body in Iraq's history. This assembly will serve as Iraq's
legislature, and it will choose a transitional government with
executive powers. The transitional national assembly will also draft a
new constitution, which will be presented to the Iraqi people in a
referendum scheduled for the fall of 2005. Under this new
constitution, Iraq will elect a permanent government by the end of next
In this time of war and liberation and rebuilding, American
soldiers and civilians on the ground have come to know and respect the
citizens of Iraq. They're a proud people who hold strong and diverse
opinions. Yet Iraqis are united in a broad and deep conviction:
They're determined never again to live at the mercy of a dictator. And
they believe that a national election will put that dark time behind
them. A representative government that protects basic rights, elected
by Iraqis, is the best defense against the return of tyranny -- and
that election is coming. (Applause.)
Completing the five steps to Iraqi elected self-government will not
be easy. There's likely to be more violence before the transfer of
sovereignty, and after the transfer of sovereignty. The terrorists and
Saddam loyalists would rather see many Iraqis die than have any live in
freedom. But terrorists will not determine the future of Iraq.
That nation is moving every week toward free elections and a
permanent place among free nations. Like every nation that has made
the journey to democracy, Iraqis will raise up a government that
reflects their own culture and values. I sent American troops to Iraq
to defend our security, not to stay as an occupying power. I sent
American troops to Iraq to make its people free, not to make them
American. Iraqis will write their own history, and find their own
way. As they do, Iraqis can be certain, a free Iraq will always have a
friend in the United States of America. (Applause.)
In the last 32 months, history has placed great demands on our
country, and events have come quickly. Americans have seen the flames
of September the 11th, followed battles in the mountains of
Afghanistan, and learned new terms like "orange alert" and "ricin" and
"dirty bomb." We've seen killers at work on trains in Madrid, in a
bank in Istanbul, at a synagogue in Tunis, and at a nightclub in Bali.
And now the families of our soldiers and civilian workers pray for
their sons and daughters in Mosul and Karbala and Baghdad.
We did not seek this war on terror, but this is the world as we
find it. We must keep our focus. We must do our duty. History is
moving, and it will tend toward hope, or tend toward tragedy. Our
terrorist enemies have a vision that guides and explains all their
varied acts of murder. They seek to impose Taliban-like rule, country
by country, across the greater Middle East. They seek the total
control of every person, and mind, and soul, a harsh society in which
women are voiceless and brutalized. They seek bases of operation to
train more killers and export more violence. They commit dramatic acts
of murder to shock, frighten and demoralize civilized nations, hoping
we will retreat from the world and give them free rein. They seek
weapons of mass destruction, to impose their will through blackmail and
catastrophic attacks. None of this is the expression of a religion.
It is a totalitarian political ideology, pursued with consuming zeal,
and without conscience.
Our actions, too, are guided by a vision. We believe that freedom
can advance and change lives in the greater Middle East, as it has
advanced and changed lives in Asia, and Latin America, and Eastern
Europe, and Africa. We believe it is a tragedy of history that in the
Middle East -- which gave the world great gifts of law and science and
faith -- so many have been held back by lawless tyranny and
fanaticism. We believe that when all Middle Eastern peoples are
finally allowed to live and think and work and worship as free men and
women, they will reclaim the greatness of their own heritage. And when
that day comes, the bitterness and burning hatreds that feed terrorism
will fade and die away. America and all the world will be safer when
hope has returned to the Middle East.
These two visions -- one of tyranny and murder, the other of
liberty and life -- clashed in Afghanistan. And thanks to brave U.S.
and coalition forces and to Afghan patriots, the nightmare of the
Taliban is over, and that nation is coming to life again. These two
visions have now met in Iraq, and are contending for the future of that
country. The failure of freedom would only mark the beginning of peril
and violence. But, my fellow Americans, we will not fail. We will
persevere, and defeat this enemy, and hold this hard-won ground for the
realm of liberty.
May God bless our country. (Applause.)
END [5:34 P.M. PDT]